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Bosnia and Herzegovina
Western Balkans
EU Average
OECD Average

Reading

Maths

Science
403
402
482
484
406
414
489
488
398
408
484
486

Average scores

Regional and international educational performance

Bosnia and Herzegovina performs around the regional average in reading, maths, and science.

Education performance in Bosnia and Herzegovina is inequitable

Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
disadvantaged students.

Policies are needed to help all students
succeed.

Advantaged
431
Advantaged
Girls
418
373
Disadvantaged
389
Boys

An important driver, and
reflection, of inequity is
the tracking of students
into general education and
vocational programmes

79% of upper secondary students attend a
vocational programme.

Roughly 61% of these students cannot read
proficiently.

Selection into upper secondary programmes is
not equitable:

Boys are 2x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
programmes

Boys Girls
2x

Disadvantaged students are 4x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes

Advantaged Disadvantaged
4x

Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in Bosnia and Herzegovina results in a
decline in the performance gap between
general educational and vocational
programmes.

This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can largely shape whether
they attend general education or vocational
programmes.

78
45
69
33
84
44

Educational spending in
Bosnia and Herzegovina is
low internationally

More spending could contribute to higher results.

Provision of educational
resources in Bosnia and
Herzegovina is low and
inequitable

Principals in Bosnia and Herzegovina reported
greater concerns about resource shortages in
vocational schools.

This trend is also seen across Western
Balkans economies and OECD countries.

Difference in index
Advantaged
Disadvantaged

Bosnia and Herzegovina

-0.36
OECD

Western Balkans

-0.45
General education
Vocational programme
-0.66

Bosnia and Herzegovina

-0.12
OECD
-0.17
Western Balkans

Teaching practices in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
differ from international
benchmarks

Compared to the average across OECD
countries:

And less adaptive methods that focus on
meeting students’ individual needs.

OECD average
Bosnia and
Herzegovina average

The practices commonly
used by teachers in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
are associated with
lower reading scores

More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in

Bosnia and Herzegovina

and throughout Western Balkans 5* and
OECD countries.

Difference in reading
point score

*No data for North Macedonia

Teacher-directed
instruction
Adaptive
instruction

Positive teaching methods are not practiced equitably in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Traditional practices such as teacher-directed instruction are more frequently used in schools with more disadvantaged students and vocational programmes.

Adaptive instructional approaches associated with higher outcomes more frequently occur in schools with more advantaged students and general education programmes.

Traditional Adaptive Disadvantaged
Schools
Vocational
Programmes
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
-0.21
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
-0.19
Traditional Adaptive Advantaged
Schools
General
Education
Programmes
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
0.11
Bosnia and
Herzegovina
0.08

This is likely to further exacerbate existing
performance disparities.

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