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Kosovo
Western Balkans
EU Average
OECD Average

Reading

Maths

Science
353
402
482
484
366
414
489
488
365
408
484
486

Average scores

Regional and international educational performance

Kosovo performs lower than the regional
average in reading, maths, and science.

Education performance
in Kosovo is inequitable

Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
disadvantaged students.

Policies are needed to help all students
succeed.

Advantaged
378
Advantaged
Girls
366
339
Disadvantaged
340
Boys

An important driver, and
reflection, of inequity is
the tracking of students
into general education and
vocational programmes

52% of upper secondary students attend a vocational programme.

Roughly 88% of these students cannot
read proficiently

Selection into upper secondary programmes is
not equitable:

Boys are 2x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
programmes

Boys Girls
2x

Disadvantaged students are 1.3x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes

Advantaged Disadvantaged
1.3x

Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in Kosovo results in a decline in the
performance gap between general educational
and vocational programmes.

This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can shape whether they
attend general education or vocational
programmes.

57
38
69
33
84
44
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Educational spending in
the region is low
(data for Kosovo is missing).

More spending could contribute to higher results.

Educational resourcing
in Kosovo might be even
lower than in other
regional systems

Kosovo has the fewest computers per student
in the region

And the lowest share of computers connected
to the internet

Provision of educational
resources in Kosovo is
low and inequitable

Principals in Kosovo reported greater concerns
about resource shortages in:

Schools with more disadvantaged students

Vocational schools

These trends are also seen across Western
Balkans economies and OECD countries.

Difference in index
Advantaged
Disadvantaged

Kosovo

-0.46
OECD
-0.36

Western Balkans

-0.45
General education
Vocational programme
-0.17

Kosovo

-0.12
OECD
-0.17
Western Balkans

Teaching practices
in Kosovo differ from
international benchmarks

Compared to the average across OECD
countries:

And less adaptive methods that focus on
meeting students’ individual needs.

OECD average
Kosovo average

The practices commonly
used by teachers in
Kosovo are associated
with lower reading
scores

More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in

Kosovo

and throughout Western Balkans 5* and
OECD countries.

Difference in reading
point score

*No data for North Macedonia

Teacher-directed
instruction
Adaptive
instruction