Kosovo performs lower than the regional
average in reading, maths, and science.
Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
Policies are needed to help all students
52% of upper secondary students attend a vocational programme.
Roughly 88% of these students cannot
Selection into upper secondary programmes is
Boys are 2x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
Disadvantaged students are 1.3x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes
Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in Kosovo results in a decline in the
performance gap between general educational
and vocational programmes.
This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can shape whether they
attend general education or vocational
More spending could contribute to higher results.
Kosovo has the fewest computers per student
in the region
And the lowest share of computers connected
to the internet
Principals in Kosovo reported greater concerns
about resource shortages in:
Schools with more disadvantaged students
These trends are also seen across Western
Balkans economies and OECD countries.
Compared to the average across OECD
Kosovo tends to use more teacher-directed
And less adaptive methods that focus on
meeting students’ individual needs.
More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in
and throughout Western Balkans 5* and
*No data for North Macedonia