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Montenegro
Western Balkans
EU Average
OECD Average

Reading

Maths

Science
421
402
482
484
430
414
489
488
415
408
484
486

Average scores

Regional and international educational performance

Montenegro performs better than other Western
Balkans systems in reading, maths and science.

These scores are close to those of some
countries in Europe, such as Bulgaria, Greece
and Romania.

Education performance in Montenegro is inequitable

Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
disadvantaged students.

Policies are needed to help all students
succeed.

Advantaged
451
Advantaged
Girls
437
396
Disadvantaged
407
Boys

An important driver, and
reflection, of inequity is
the tracking of students
into general education and
vocational programmes

67% of upper secondary students attend a vocational programme.

Roughly 55% of these students cannot read
proficiently.

Selection into upper secondary programmes is
not equitable:

Boys are 1.4x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
programmes

Boys Girls
1.4x

Disadvantaged students are 2.2x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes

Advantaged Disadvantaged
2.2x

Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in Montenegro results in a decline in the
performance gap between educational and
vocational programmes.

This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can largely shape whether
they attend general education or vocational
programmes.

72
36
69
33
84
44

Educational spending in
Montenegro is low regionally
and internationally

Montenegro performs better than expected given its level of funding.

However, its expenditure on education is far
less than the OECD average. More spending
could contribute to even higher results.

Provision of educational
resources in Montenegro is
low and inequitable

Principals in Montenegro reported greater concerns
about resource shortages in schools with more
disadvantaged students.

This trend is also seen across
Western Balkans economies and
OECD countries.

Difference in index
Advantaged
Disadvantaged

Montenegro

-0.36
OECD

Western Balkans

-0.45
General education
Vocational programme
-0.17

Montenegro

-0.36
OECD
-0.45
Western Balkans

Teaching practices in
Montenegro differ from
international
benchmarks

Compared to the average across OECD
countries:

And less adaptive methods that focus on
meeting students’ individual needs.

OECD average
Montenegro average

The practices commonly
used by teachers in
Montenegro are associated
with lower reading
scores

More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in

Montenegro

and throughout Western Balkans 5* and
OECD countries.

Difference in reading
point score

*No data for North Macedonia

Teacher-directed
instruction
Adaptive
instruction

Positive teaching methods are not practiced equitably in Montenegro

Traditional practices such as teacher-directed instruction are more frequently used in schools with more disadvantaged students and vocational programmes.

Adaptive instructional approaches associated with higher outcomes more frequently occur in schools with more advantaged students and general education programmes.

Traditional Adaptive Disadvantaged
Schools
Vocational
Programmes
Montenegro
-0.22
Montenegro
-0.14
Traditional Adaptive Advantaged
Schools
General
Education
Programmes
Montenegro
0.11
Montenegro
0.01 (Not statistically significant)

This is likely to further exacerbate existing
performance disparities.

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