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North Macedonia
Western Balkans
EU Average
OECD Average

Reading

Maths

Science
393
402
482
484
394
414
489
488
413
408
484
486

Average scores

Regional and international educational performance

North Macedonia performs lower than the
regional average in reading and maths, and
higher in science.

Education performance in North Macedonia is inequitable

Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
disadvantaged students.

Policies are needed to help all students
succeed.

Advantaged
439
Advantaged
Girls
420
359
Disadvantaged
368
Boys

An important driver, and
reflection, of inequity is
the tracking of students
into general education and
vocational programmes

59% of upper secondary students attend a
vocational programme.

Roughly 67% of these students cannot
read proficiently

Selection into upper secondary programmes is
not equitable:

Boys are 1.4x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
programmes

Boys Girls
1.4x

Disadvantaged students are 2.3x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes

Advantaged Disadvantaged
2.3x

Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in North Macedonia results in a decline
in the performance gap between general
educational and vocational programmes.

This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can largely shape whether
they attend general education or vocational
programmes.

64
17
69
33
84
44

Educational spending in
North Macedonia is low
internationally

More spending could contribute to higher results.

Provision of educational
resources in North Macedonia
is low and inequitable

Principals in North Macedonia reported greater
concerns about resource shortages in:

Schools with more disadvantaged students

Vocational schools

These trends are also seen across Western
Balkans economies and OECD countries.

Difference in index
Advantaged
Disadvantaged

North Macedonia

-0.33
OECD
-0.36

Western Balkans

-0.45
General education
Vocational programme
-0.22

North Macedonia

-0.12
OECD
-0.17
Western Balkans

Teaching practices in the
Western Balkans dier
from international
benchmarks (data from
North Macedonia is
missing)

Compared to the average across OECD
countries:

* Data from North Macedonia is missing.

OECD average
Western Balkans
5 average*

The practices commonly
used by teachers in
North Macedonia are
associated with lower
reading scores

More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in:

the Western Balkans 5* and

OECD countries.

Difference in reading
point score

*No data for North Macedonia

Teacher-directed
instruction
Adaptive
instruction

Positive teaching methods are not practiced equitably in the Western Balkans

Traditional practices such as teacher-directed instruction are more frequently used in schools with more disadvantaged students and vocational programmes

Adaptive instructional approaches associated with higher outcomes more frequently occur in schools with more advantaged students and general education programmes.

Traditional Adaptive Disadvantaged
Schools
Vocational
Programmes
Western Balkans
5 average
-0.15
Western Balkans
5 average
-0.09
Traditional Adaptive Advantaged
Schools
General
Education
Programmes
Western Balkans
5 average
0.07
Western Balkans
5 average
0.04

This is likely to further exacerbate existing
performance disparities.

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