North Macedonia performs lower than the
regional average in reading and maths, and
higher in science.
Socio-economically advantaged students and
girls perform better than boys and
Policies are needed to help all students
59% of upper secondary students attend a
Roughly 67% of these students cannot
Selection into upper secondary programmes is
Boys are 1.4x more likely than girls
to attend vocational training
Disadvantaged students are 2.3x more
likely than advantaged students to
attend vocational training programmes
Accounting for gender and socio-economic
status in North Macedonia results in a decline
in the performance gap between general
educational and vocational programmes.
This suggests that student background, in
addition to ability, can largely shape whether
they attend general education or vocational
More spending could contribute to higher results.
Principals in North Macedonia reported greater
concerns about resource shortages in:
Schools with more disadvantaged students
These trends are also seen across Western
Balkans economies and OECD countries.
Compared to the average across OECD
The Western Balkans tends to use more
* Data from North Macedonia is missing.
More teacher-directed instruction is associated
with lower reading performance and more
adaptive instruction is associated with higher
reading performance in:
the Western Balkans 5* and
*No data for North Macedonia
Traditional practices such as teacher-directed instruction are more frequently used in schools with more disadvantaged students and vocational programmes
Adaptive instructional approaches associated with higher outcomes more frequently occur in schools with more advantaged students and general education programmes.